What is the aesthetic
Aesthetics - philosophical science, consider two interrelated aspects: manifestations of the beautiful (aesthetic) in the world and the artistic activities of people.
Instruction that is aesthetics
The ratio of these "trends" in line with the aesthetic changed, but the inextricable relationship did not allow science to disintegrate into several separate areas. The first part of the concept of aesthetics as a science involves the study of the aesthetic in the human system of values and the world at large. The second part examines the artistic individual or art work - its origin, development, unlike other types of human activity.
Aesthetics is not only exploring the beautiful, but also develops certain norms in this area. These include criteria for aesthetic evaluation and possible rules or algorithms art.
aesthetic development occurs at two levels: explicit and implicit - first appeared after the aesthetics became an independent science. Implicitly it has developed in other sciences and forms of creativity.
The origin of the concepts of beauty and try to understand the aesthetic as part of the universe occurred in antiquity. Aesthetic reflection was captured including myths. Ancient Greek philosophers (Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus) tried to analyze the place of beauty in nature and in human life. With the advent of Christianity, the emphasis has shifted to the symbols and signs that reflect the presence of God on earth. Beauty, according to the aesthetics of the time, was intended to raise man above the earth and a little closer to God.
Between classicism of people interested in the aesthetic essence of art. To attempt development of rules and regulations, which could navigate any artist (in the broad sense of the word).
The term "aesthetics" itself appeared in 1735. its explicit development begins from now on. A. Baumgarten brought this term included in the aesthetics of Sciences, has identified its subject and identified three sections: the beauty in things and in thinking, laws of art, eesteticheskie signs (semiotics).
Perhaps the most significant contribution to the development of aesthetics made Kant and GWF Hegel. Kant considered aesthetics as the final part of the whole philosophical system. He connected this area with the perception of a person, that is, to focus on the subject-object relationship. Kant's ideas developed Schiller. He argued that the concept of aesthetic reduced to the game: in the game man creates the ultimate reality, embodies the art of personal and social ideals. As a result, the person gets freedom, which she had been deprived of since the days of the primitive state of civilization pressure.
Hegel also understood art as a form of self-revelation of the absolute spirit in the process of artistic creation. The main purpose of art, according to Hegel - in terms of truth. In fact, Hegel was the last representative of the classical philosophical aesthetics. After that it became a traditional academic discipline, and scientists have developed a well-known aspects of aesthetics and offered different interpretations. In XX century the most intense again became implicit way of development of aesthetics in other sciences - the theory of art, psychology, sociology, semiotics and linguistics.
postmodernism Aesthetics offers a new perspective on issues of beauty and terrible. All the guidelines and rules are removed, the art recognized form of games, and a variety of works of art - a kaleidoscope of meanings. Now there is the beautiful and the ugly - all you can get from the aesthetic pleasure, everything depends on the setting of a person perceives reality. Such an approach to aesthetics opens the way for the development of philosophical science.