Diabetic nephropathy - a kidney disease that affects vessels at complication of diabetes.
Nephropathy - a condition in which failure develops in 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus. This condition is not reversible and navigate to invalizatsii patients.For what reasons there nephropathy
1. intoxication metals;
3. Drugs that are used for a long time;
4. metabolic disorders in the body;
5. Various tumor;
6. Toxic factors;
7. Abnormalities of the urinary tract and kidneys;
8. Nekronefroz.How does nephropathy
The clinic is manifested quite late. Very often, the complaints appear to have an end-stage diabetic nephropathy disease.
There are 5 stages of nephropathy.
Stage 1 - hyperactivity kidney. At this stage the protein is not detected in urine. Increasing filtration and urine output. vascular cells slightly increased in size.
Stage 2 - changes in the structure of the kidney. Once diagnosed diabetes develops in 2 years. Thickens the vessel walls. no protein in urine. Clinical manifestations are absent.
Stage 3 - it usually develops within 5 years after the disease. The urine is determined by a small amount of protein. This indicates to the small blood vessels damage. Changes in glomerular filtration rate.
In the first three stages of the standard methods to identify the disease is impossible. These 3 steps are reversible.
With 4 stages of laboratory can detect high blood pressure and swelling.
Stage 5 is characterized by a pronounced clinic. This process is unfortunately not reversible.
An early symptom of nephropathy may be anemia, impaired production of erythropoietin. Therefore, patients with diabetes mellitus, anemia appeared to be alert the clinician.
Develops proteinuria resulting in functional impairment of kidney glomeruli.
The appearance of protein in the urine is a sign of the last stage already nephropathy.
Uremia - the final stage is characterized by vomiting, lethargy, headache, pruritus, diarrhea. Seizures and coma develops, if time does not help.How is it diagnosed
1. Definition of proteinuria;
3. Ultrasound of the kidneys;
4. Determination of white blood cells;
5. According to the testimony of kidney biopsy is performed;
6. Identify albumin in urine.How is it treated nephropathy
Methods of treatment of nephropathy is divided into 3 phases.
Stage 1. Prevention of injury in diabetes renal vessels. At this stage sugar-appointed agents.
Stage 2. Maintaining normal levels of albumin. Not unimportant is the treatment of hypertension. Appointed ACE inhibitors such as enaprilin. It shows a diet with an increased amount of protein.
Stage 3. The aim is to prevent the development of end-stage. Introduced proteinuria may be the first signal of decline in renal function. appointed by the amino acids, for example Ketosteril. For ACE inhibitors or amlodipine attached bisoprolol. In severe edema control the volume of fluid administered diuretics.
Reduced glomerular filtration requires replacement therapy or kidney transplantation. By replacement therapy include hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.Preventive measures for diabetic nephropathy
1. Correction of carbohydrate metabolism;
2. Maintaining blood sugar levels within the normal range;
3. Normalization of blood pressure;
5. The elementary rules of personal hygiene;
6. No hypothermia.