How To Determine The Nuclear Charge | The Science

The Science

# How to determine the nuclear charge

The atom of the chemical element consists of a nucleus and the electron shell. Kernel - is a central part of an atom, which is concentrated almost all its mass. Unlike the electron shell, the core has a positive charge.

### You will need:

The atomic number of the chemical element, the law Moseley

## Instruction how to determine the nuclear charge

Step 1:

The nucleus of an atom contains two types of particles - protons and neutrons. Neutrons are electrically neutral particles, that is, their electric charge is zero. Protons are positively charged particles and the electric charge is +1.

Step 2:

Thus, the charge of the nucleus is equal to the number of protons. In turn, the number of protons in the nucleus is equal to the atomic number of the chemical element. For example, atomic hydrogen Room - 1, ie, the hydrogen nucleus consists of one proton has a charge of +1. The atomic number of sodium - 11, the charge of its nucleus is equal to 11.

Step 3:

When the alpha decay of a nucleus it its atomic number is reduced to two by the emission of alpha particles (helium nuclei of the atom). Thus, the number of protons in the nucleus, tested alpha decay is also reduced by two. Beta decay can occur in three different forms. In the case of the collapse of the "beta minus" a neutron turns into a proton while emitting an electron and an antineutrino. Then the nuclear charge increases by one. In the case of the collapse of the "beta plus" proton turns into a neutron, a positron and a neu- trino, the nuclear charge is reduced by one. In the case of electron capture and the nuclear charge is reduced by one.

Step 4:

The charge of the nucleus can also be determined by the frequency of the characteristic spectral lines of atomic radiation. According to the law Moseley: sqrt (v / R) = (Z-S) / n, where v - the frequency of the spectral radiation characteristic, R - the Rydberg constant, S - screening constant, n - the principal quantum number. Thus, Z = n * sqrt (v / r) + s.