How To Get Helium | The Science



The Science

How to get helium

Helium - inert monatomic gas that has no color, taste and smell. One of the most abundant elements in the universe, second only to hydrogen. Helium is extracted from natural gas, the low-temperature separation process - the so-called fractional distillation.

How to get helium

Instruction how to get helium

Step 1:

The nucleus of a helium atom has two protons and (usually) two neutrons revolve around two electrons. The helium atom is smaller than the lighter hydrogen atom with one proton and the electron, as most of the attractive force of the helium nucleus attracts the electron closer. Although easy to assume that the electrons revolve around the nucleus in a circular orbit, forming a "cloud", the place of the most probable locations of electrons. Isotopes of helium containing 2 protons and two electrons may contain from 1 to 4 neutrons.

Step 2:

In industry, helium from natural gas produced, in which it is contained. From other gases helium is separated by deep cooling using what it liquefies harder all other gases.

Step 3:

First produced by throttling the cooling that takes place in several stages. During this process, helium is purified from carbon dioxide and other hydrocarbons. The result is a mixture of helium, hydrogen and neon. The resulting mixture is called "raw" helium. helium content in the mixture is from 70 to 90%.

Step 4:

Then the crude mixture is purified helium, at which the removal of hydrogen therefrom. Hydrogen is removed from the mixture by using copper oxide.

Step 5:

Further, the final purification is achieved the helium remaining mixture cooled, boiling under vacuum and nitrogen followed by adsorption of impurities existing on the activated carbon adsorbers which are also cooled by liquid nitrogen. Typically helium receive two kinds of technical purity (helium content of 99.80%) and high purity (99.985% helium content).