What is hermeneutics
Hermeneutics - the art, the doctrine of the understanding and interpretation of texts, the original meaning of which is not clear because of their antiquity. The Greek word "hermeneutic", which means "understanding of the teacher", is derived from Hermes, who, according to mythology, passed people the message of the Olympian gods and interpreted their decrees.
Hermeneutics originated in ancient Greek philosophy as the art of understanding the utterances of oracles and priests. Protestant theologians have used this science as the art of interpretation of sacred texts. In the Middle Ages hermeneutics function was only commenting on and interpreting the Bible. An important stage in the development of the understanding of art was the Renaissance. While hermeneutics becomes the method of translation of ancient works of the national languages. Becoming a science as an independent discipline occurred in the Reformation period. If Catholic theology was based on the traditional interpretation of Scripture, the Protestants denied its sacred status, it was no longer serve as the canon of interpretation of the Bible. In the XIX century hermeneutics it becomes the most important method of historical knowledge. The general theory of interpretation were laid by the German philosopher and theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher. His hermeneutics was, above all, the art of understanding someone else's identity. The main procedures are "getting used" hermeneutic in the inner world of the author. In the middle of the XX century works of European phi-FEV M. Heidegger and G. Gadamer turned hermeneutics from a method of the humanities in the philosophical doctrine. Understanding considered not only as a way of learning, but also as a way of being. In their view, hermeneutics is not limited to methodological issues of interpretation of works of past culture, it is relevant to the fundamental structures of human existence, to reality and to the basic moments of communication with other people. Supporters of the theory (traditional) hermeneutics skeptical of its philosophical understanding. Traditional hermeneutic Emilio Betti created in 1955, a comprehensive work "The general theory of interpretation", translated into all major European languages. His understanding of the text included the following stages - recognition, reproduction and use. The purpose of the traditional hermeneutics - a rigorous, methodologically verified reconstruction of meaning, which has invested in the text of the author. There are basic forms of hermeneutics - the theological hermeneutics - the interpretation of the sacred sources; - Philological (theoretical) Hermeneutics - theoretically informed, methodological interpretation of text (an example of such a hermeneutics - the translation from one language to another); - Legal hermeneutics - interpretation of the legal meaning of any law with respect to a particular case; - Universal (philosophical) hermeneutics - the science of the spirit, the universal aspect of philosophy.